Entomologists estimate the actual number of living insect species could be as high as 5 million to 10 million.
The orders that contain the greatest numbers of species are Coleoptera beetles , Lepidoptera butterflies and moths , Hymenoptera ants , bees, wasps , and Diptera true flies. The majority of insects are small, usually less than 6 mm 0. Some of the feather-winged beetles and parasitic wasps are almost microscopic, while some tropical forms such as the hercules beetles, African goliath beetles, certain Australian stick insects, and the wingspan of the hercules moth can be as large as 27 cm In many species the difference in body structure between the sexes is pronounced, and knowledge of one sex may give few clues to the appearance of the other sex.
In some, such as the twisted-wing insects Strepsiptera , the female is a mere inactive bag of eggs, and the winged male is one of the most active insects known. Modes of reproduction are quite diverse , and reproductive capacity is generally high. Some insects, such as the mayflies , feed only in the immature or larval stage and go without food during an extremely short adult life. Among social insects, queen termites may live for up to 50 years, whereas some adult mayflies live less than two hours.
Some insects advertise their presence to the other sex by flashing lights, and many imitate other insects in colour and form and thus avoid or minimize attack by predators that feed by day and find their prey visually, as do birds, lizards, and other insects.
Behaviour is diverse, from the almost inert parasitic forms, whose larvae lie in the nutrient bloodstreams of their hosts and feed by absorption, to dragonflies that pursue victims in the air, tiger beetles that outrun prey on land, and predaceous water beetles that outswim prey in water. In some cases the adult insects make elaborate preparations for the young, in others the mother alone defends or feeds her young, and in still others the young are supported by complex insect societies.
Examples of Demographic Segmentation | leshoovosun.tk
Some colonies of social insects, such as tropical termites and ants , may reach populations of millions of inhabitants. You are using an outdated browser.
Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. It is also needed in topic detection and tracking systems and text summarizing problems. Many different approaches have been tried:   e. HMM , lexical chains , passage similarity using word co-occurrence , clustering , topic modeling , etc.
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It is quite an ambiguous task — people evaluating the text segmentation systems often differ in topic boundaries. Hence, text segment evaluation is also a challenging problem. Processes may be required to segment text into segments besides mentioned, including morphemes a task usually called morphological analysis or paragraphs. Automatic segmentation is the problem in natural language processing of implementing a computer process to segment text. When punctuation and similar clues are not consistently available, the segmentation task often requires fairly non-trivial techniques, such as statistical decision-making, large dictionaries, as well as consideration of syntactic and semantic constraints.
Effective natural language processing systems and text segmentation tools usually operate on text in specific domains and sources. As an example, processing text used in medical records is a very different problem than processing news articles or real estate advertisements. The process of developing text segmentation tools starts with collecting a large corpus of text in an application domain.
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There are two general approaches:. Some text segmentation systems take advantage of any markup like HTML and know document formats like PDF to provide additional evidence for sentence and paragraph boundaries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Main articles: Topic analysis and Document classification. Natural language processing.
Text segmentation Part-of-speech tagging Text chunking Compound term processing Collocation extraction Stemming Lemmatisation Named-entity recognition Coreference resolution Sentiment analysis Concept mining Parsing Word-sense disambiguation Ontology learning Terminology extraction Textual entailment Truecasing. Multi-document summarization Sentence extraction Text simplification. Computer-assisted Example-based Rule-based Neural. Speech recognition Speech synthesis Optical character recognition Natural language generation. Pachinko allocation Latent Dirichlet allocation Latent semantic analysis.
Automated online assistant Chatbot Interactive fiction Question answering Voice user interface. Choi