Lightning research papers


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Spring-Summer on Aragats is the time of very strong thunderstorm activity. On 28 July large disturbances of the near surface electrostatic field began at UT. The atmospheric electricity sign convention a downward-directed electric field change vector is considered positive is used throughout this paper. The field change for negative lightning that lowers negative charge overhead is positive. At UT electrostatic field started to decrease; the same minutes all particle detectors located at Aragats station register enhancement of particle flux TGE, Fig.

One-minute time-series of STAND1 detector: the count rate combinations and correspond to signals only from upper and middle scintillation detectors, respectively.

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Distances to 4 nearby lightning flashes measured by the same EFM device are 4. We start the analysis of the 28 July TGE event by examining the pattern of correlated measurements of one-minute time series of the STAND1 detector and the disturbances of the electrostatic field at detector site see Fig. From this initial pattern we can observe:. Examining the second pattern with one-second time series Fig. Negative lightning abruptly terminates TGE; in one second starting at the flux decreases from to , that is, by After abrupt termination the flux starts to rise again although does not reach previous maximum;.

Negative lightning abruptly terminated TGE. Next data pattern Fig. The time of trigger is denoted by a point occurred at WWLLN registered lightning at Particle flux starts to decline at Particle count rate decline occurs after the trigger at TGE decay started simultaneously with an abrupt increase of the near-surface electrostatic field. Therefore, the termination of TGE is directly connected to the rearranging of charged structures in the thundercloud, which is governed by lightning.

Particle flux start to rise on declining of the electrostatic field and TGE reaches maximum on the minimum of the field strength;. On the rising phase of TGE no lightning occurred before the particle flux was abruptly terminated by a strong negative lightning stroke. The rearrangement of the electric field in the cloud and particle flux decline occurred the same time after lightning stroke. To gain more insights into the avalanche processes in the cloud we measured the intensities of electron and gamma ray fluxes, as well as energy spectra of the gamma rays available from the variety of spectrometers on Aragats.

To select TGEs with small electron contamination we used thick plastic scintillators fully shielded by thin scintillators vetoing charge flux see CUBE detector description in the attachment. The intensities were recovered separately for 2 vertically stacked cm thick plastic scintillators.

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From Fig. After lightning, the intensity and maximal energy of gamma rays significantly decrease. In ref. On the minute time scale Fig. The red arrow shows lightning occurred at From the recovered overall energy spectrum of TGE Fig. In the energy spectra measured after lightning, at — UT intensities abruptly declined and the highest energy particles vanished. We analyzed largest TGE events of spring — summer mostly abruptly terminated by the lightning discharge, see Fig.

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In Fig. As we see from Fig. Particle flux increased when the electrostatic field is in the negative domain; nearby lightning abruptly terminated TGE, after lightning flash the particle flux abruptly terminated and again started to increase Fig.

The TGE in Fig. June TGE events abruptly terminated by nearby lightning a , c , d and — not terminated b. If two or more peaks are observed in the TGE we show in the Table the time of maximum and corresponding electrostatic field only for the first usually largest peak. One-minute time series of the particle detectors with low energy threshold demonstrate huge enhancements equivalent to tens of standard deviations.

In 8 events from 10 nearby lightning abruptly terminated TGE. Several severe storms were accompanied with intense particle fluxes observed by facilities of Aragats Space environmental Center. After lightning, we detect an abrupt decrease of particle flux caused by the removal of high-energy particles.

All these processes occurred within few hundreds of millisecond. All observed TGE-terminating lightning flashes lowered negative charge overhead. For our conclusion on the lightning initiation, we use the only small subsample of lightning flashes in the observed storm flashes terminating particle flux. TGE is a rather rare transient process depending on the coincidence of several random parameters of the electrified atmosphere. Our particle detectors are not positioned in some specially selected area, as in beam experiments with man-made accelerators.

Another key parameter is a vertical extension of the electric field, which must be long enough to provide necessary potential drop. This figure is not covered by the CC BY licence. All rights reserved, used with permission. The group from Langmuir Laboratory in central New Mexico during balloon flights on 3 July measured the maximal field of 1. In the thunderstorm cell randomly emerge extended regions of enhanced electric field with strength above the breakeven limit for instance electric field of 1. Intense particle flux create a system of the random clusters of ionization in a huge 3-dimension storm cell.

Due to some, yet unspecified stochastic mechanism for an example of such a mechanizm, see ref. Due to working charging machine in the cloud at another time in another place points 1—3 will be repeated as a storm prolonged see Fig. Dwyer, J. The physics of lightning, Physics Reports.

Wilson, C. Cambridge Philos. Gurevich, A. Runaway electron mechanism of air breakdown and preconditioning during a thunderstorm. Physics Letters A , v. A fundamental limit on electric fields in air. Chilingarian, A. Ground-based observations of thunderstorm-correlated fluxes of high-energy electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons. D 82 , , doi: Particle bursts from thunderclouds: natural particle accelerators above our heads.

D: Part. Fields 83 6 , , doi: Marshall, T. Measurements of charged precipitation in a New Mexico thunderstorm: lower positive charge centers. D 87 , , doi: Recovering of the energy spectra of electrons and gamma rays coming from the thunderclouds. Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements - model and relation to lightning flashes. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics , 68—76, doi: McCarthy, M. Further observations of X-rays inside thunderstorms. Eack, K.

Initial results from simultaneous observationsof x rays and electric fields in a thunderstorm. Alexeenko, V. Physics Letters A. Khaerdinov, N. Cosmic rays and the electric field of thunderclouds: Evidence for acceleration of particles runaway electrons. Atmospheric Research 76 , —, doi: Tsuchiya, H. Detection of high-energy gamma rays from winter thunderclouds, Phys.

Lightning origination and thunderstorm ground enhancements terminated by the lightning flash. Kelley, N.

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Relativistic electron avalanches as a thunderstorm discharge competing with lightning, Relativistic electron avalanches as a thunderstorm discharge competing with lightning. Nature communications 6 Article number: , doi: Kollarik, M.

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Kuroda, Y. Observation of gamma ray bursts at ground level under the thunderclouds. Physics Letters B , —, doi: Correlated measurements of secondary cosmic ray fluxes by the Aragats space-environmental center monitors. Methods A 2—3 , —, doi: Atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes. Space Physics. Pokhsraryan, D. Fast electric field waveforms and near-surface electric field images of lightning discharges detecte on Mt. Lightning initiation by simultaneous of runaway breakdown and cosmic ray showers.

A , 79—87, doi: Torii, T. Migrating source of energetic radiation generated by thunderstorm activity.

Research Boosts Understanding of Lightning That Goes Up

On the possibility of location of radiation-emitting region in thundercloud. Journal of Physics: Conference Series Electric field magnitudes and lightning initiation in thunderstorms. Observed electric fields associated with lightning initiation. L, doi: Iudin, D. Lightning initiation as a noise induced kinetic transition, submitted to Radiophysics Download references.